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Trail of tears and abject failure: Indian missiles


Indian missile systems: A tale of tears and failure

| NEW YORK | RUPEE NEWS | May 26th, 2008 | Moin Ansari | Talk to any Indian and he or she will go on for ever about the IT successes–a small $41 Billion industry that is now getting clobbered by China that is overtaking the Indian industry because of the robust Chinese manufacturing.

The DRDO had difficulty marrying high concepts with sound engineering. Thus many major systems on the drawing board did not become potent weapons. Although it had a staff of 30,000, 51 laboratories and a US$2.5-billion budget, the organization operated under technical and critical-component constraints for the last 50 years. It has spent more than US$50 billion and produced very little.

The army has had many problems with the INSAS rifle developed by the organization, and nobody wants the main battle tank it developed. Its many tactical missiles have never met their defined parameters, and the Kaveri engine for light combat aircraft has been under development for three decades. WORLD VIEW NEWS SERVICE. Israel’s Military Supplies to India By Hari Sud Special to Salem-News.com

The colossal failures of Indian manufacturing are hardly ever discussed. For the past 60 years the Indian manufacturing sector has been producing junk. Tata is not a competitor of Toyota and will never be a competitor of Honda. Indian missiles are a huge failure. Indian missile system started back in the 50s on a five folder programme namely:

1) Agni 2) Pirthivi 3) Akash 4) Trishul and 5) Nag consisting of surface to surface surface to air and anti-tank systems.

Prithvi: To date the only reliable delivery system inducted is the Pirthvi missile with a range of 300 kilometres. The subsequent versions of this missile are still undergoing tests. The pride of India the Agni missile tested last time landed 200 kilometres off target.

Prithvi: Failure: To date the only reliable delivery system inducted is the Pirthvimissile with a range of 300 kilometres. The subsequent versions of this missile are still undergoing tests. The pride of India the Agni missile tested last time landed 200 kilometres off target.

Akash: After several years of testing has been shelved for reasons best known to the Indians.

Akash: Failure: After several years of testing has been shelved for reasons best known to the Indians. Akashwas meant as a substitute for Pechora. On the Akash missile, which was the subject of the DRDO media conference here on Tuesday, former air chief S. P. Tyagi said:“Akash was to be ready at a certain time, but it wasn’t. I had to change everything to make up for the delay.” Bothmissiles were part of a programme to develop indigenous weapons, which began in July 1983, with plans for Agni, Prithvi, Trishul, Akash and Nag missiles.

Trishul: Trishul is being replaced by Israeli and Russian systems.

Trishul: Failure: Trishul is being replaced by Israeli Barak and Russian systems.

The IAF, for instance, has aging Pechora, Igla-1M and OSA-AK missile systems, and that, too, in woefully inadequate numbers.

While Trishul was to replace its OSA-AK weapons system, Akashwas meant as a substitute for Pechora.

But both the Trishul and Akash air defence missile systems, which are part of the original Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme launched as far back as 1983, have been dogged by development snags in their “command guidance and integrated Ramjet rocket propulsion” systems.

Trishul, for instance, has been tested over 80 times so far without coming anywhere near becoming operational. It was, in fact, virtually given up for dead in 2003 after around Rs 300 crore was spent on it, before being revived yet again.

Trishul’s repeated failure, in fact, forced the Navy to go in for nine Israeli Barak anti-missile defence systems for its frontline warships, along with 200 Barak missiles, at a cost of Rs 1,510 crore during the 1999 Kargil conflict. The Navy is now inducting even more Barak systems due to Trishul’s continued failure.

Speaking of the Trishul surface-to-air missile that has now been termed a technology demonstrator, former naval chief Sushil Kumar said:“It was a national embarrassment. DRDO made fake claims for 25 years. In the 1999 Kargil conflict, the navy was vulnerable to attacks from Pakistan’s Harpoon.

Finally the project was scrapped when the navy went in for the Israeli Barak missiles. The Prithvi’s naval variant, Dhanush, is also flawed and ill-conceived, which is being inflicted on the navy.”Indian missile system started back in the 50s on a five folder programme namely:

Nag: The Nag proved to be as deadily as the Holy Cow.

Nag: Failure: The Nag proved to be as deadily as the Holy Cow.

Agni: Failure: The Agni-I (range 700 to 800 kilometers) and Agni-II were both products of India’s space program and connected to its Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP), itself launched in 1983. Originally, their design used a satellite space-launching rocket (SLV-3) as the first stage, on top of which was mounted the very short-range (150 to 250 kilometers) liquid fuel-propelled Prithvi missile.

The Agni-III’sbrand new design, in which both stages use solid propellants, was to enable it to carry a payload weighing up to 1.5 tons and deliver it to targets as far away as Beijing and Shanghai. At present, India lacks an effective nuclear deterrent vis-a-vis China, based on a delivery vehicle carrying a nuclear warhead. Agni-III was meant to fill the void.

The failure of the Agni III was in some ways more serious because it exposed the political limitations of India’s attempts, despite its ambitions, to pursue a military capability which is truly independent of the US’s strategic calculations.

The surface-to-surface ballistic missile, designed to have a range of 3,500 kilometers, took off in a “fairly smooth” manner at the designated hour. But “a series of mishaps” occurred in its later flight path.

The Agni-III was originally meant to be tested in 2003-04. However, the test was postponed owing to technological snags. After their rectification, said reports, the missile’s test flights were put off twice largely for “political reasons”, so as not to annoy the US.

Earlier this year, India decided to postpone the missile test out of fear that a test could hamper US Congressional ratification of the India-US nuclear cooperation deal. Publicly, the Indian defense minister cited “self-imposed restraint” to justify the postponement.

The Indian missile met a disaster as it could not attain the altitude where the first stage is over or the second is even ignited.

He disputed the Indian claim, saying that with the range of 3,500 km, the missile had to go above about 800-900 km while the second stage had to be ignited at 28 to 30 km.

‘If the missile fell from the height of 12 km, it establishes that either it’s motor rocket, the basics of the missile proved failure or the guidance and control system was faulty. In both the probabilities, Indian technology has been exposed in clumsy manners.’

‘It is interesting to watch that Indian missile programme that was initiated by French and US assistance and later New Delhi also borrowed Russian technical support has been facing tragedies from the beginning,’ the newspaper quoted him as saying.

The Pakistani missile systems consist of the following:

Hatf 1, Abdali, Ghaznavi, Shaheen 1, Ghauri, Anza mk 1 and 2,T he Green Arrow and The Babur cruise missile

When Pakistan tested the first of the Hatf series the Indian military chiefs regarded it as a mere fire cracker. Over the years the firecracker has earned the reputation of being called the Safron Slayer and Bombay Blasters. Pakistan has not only successfully tested about a dozen different delivery systems but most astoundingly within a space of 20 years have operationally inducted half a dozen delivery systems the Hatf 1, Abdali, Ghaznavi, Shaheen 1, Ghauri, Anza mk 1 and 2,The Green Arrow and The Babur cruise missile.

They are all operational with the Pakistan strategic forces. Where as Ghauri 2 and Shaheen 2 are in advanced testing stages the biggest shock for the world the Taimur Delivery system is waiting in the pipelines.

The Green arrow is an anti tank missile amongst other countries it was sold to saudi arabia who wrecked havock on Iraqi tanks during the first gulf war.It was first inducted by the Pakistan army in 1988-89 also called baktar shikan newer and more deadly versions have since been introduced.

Taimur is a highly classified project lets say we are talking about launching satellites as far as the enemy isconcerned believe me the babur cruise missile is sufficient enough to take care the so called

Yeah Baktar Shikan we all know. Any how there is some work to be completed soon

1- Increase range of Babur

2-Developed a naval version of Babur.

3-SLV, indeed we need that desperately. SLVindeed Pakistan’s top most military and strategic need at this point of time not only that but whole Satellite system. I know we can have access to Chinese GPS if required.

Indian missile systems: A tale of tears and failure

A recent satement from the highest official in the Indian army about the failure of the Indian missle program and te advice to scrap the local Indian missiles has raised suspicions that the latest missle test was rigged. The Mail Today newspaper on Wednesday quoted the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as announcing that it would scrap its 25-year Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) by the end of this year. Plagued by cost overruns and repeated failures, the announcement is a virtual admission of failure,” the newspaper said.“In fact, some former chiefs of the different services said as much on hearing the news.”

1) Agni 2) Pirthivi 3) Akash 4) Trishul and 5) Nag 6) Agni consisting of surface to surface surface to air and anti-tank systems.

The Pakistani missile systems consist of the following:

Hatf 1,Abdali,Ghaznavi,Shaheen 1,Ghauri,Anza mk 1 and 2,The Green Arrow and The Babur cruise missile

When Pakistan tested the first of the Hatf series the Indian military chiefs regarded it as a mere fire cracker. Over the years the firecracker has earned the reputation of being called the Safron Slayer and Bombay Blasters. Pakistan has not only successfully tested about a dozen different delivery systems but most astoundingly within a space of 20 years have operationally inducted half a dozen delivery systems the Hatf 1,Abdali,Ghaznavi,Shaheen 1,Ghauri,Anza mk 1 and 2,The Green Arrow and The Babur cruise missile.

They are all operational with the Pakistan strategic forces. Where as Ghauri 2 and Shaheen 2 are in advanced testing stages the biggest shock for the world the Taimur Delivery system is waiting in the pipelines.

The Green arrow is an anti tank missile amongst other countries it was sold to saudi arabia who wrecked havock on Iraqi tanks during the first gulf war.It was first inducted by the Pakistan army in 1988-89 also called baktar shikan newer and more deadly versions have since been introduced.
Taimur is a highly classified project lets say we are talking about launching satellites as far as the enemy isconcerned believe me the babur cruise missile is sufficient enough to take care the so called

Yeah Baktar Shikan we all know. Any how there is some work to be completed soon
1- Increase range of Babur
2-Developed a naval version of Babur.
3-SLV, indeed we need that desperately. SLVindeed Pakistan’s top most military and strategic need at this point of time not only that but whole Satellite system. I know we can have access to Chinese GPS if required;

APPENDIX A

India exposed by missile failure By Praful Bidwai

NEW DELHI – The failure in rapid succession this week of a satellite launcher and a new ballistic missile have shown up the technological and budgetary difficulties faced by India’s space establishment – civilian and military.

Hours after the US$50 million geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle (GSLV) witha communications satellite on board was ordered to self-destruct – as it veered off course soon after liftoff on Monday – authorities at the civilian Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) said one of its four strap-on rocket motors had failed.

Like the GSLV, a new intermediate-range ballistic missile “Agni III” that was launched by the secretive Defense Research Development Organization (DRDO) failed soon after liftoff on

Sunday and crashed into the Bay of Bengal, less than 1,000 kilometers away from the launch site.

The failure of the Agni III was in some ways more serious because it exposed the political limitations of India’s attempts, despite its ambitions, to pursue a military capability which is truly independent of the US’s strategic calculations.

The surface-to-surface ballistic missile, designed to have a range of 3,500 kilometers, took off in a “fairly smooth” manner at the designated hour. But “a series of mishaps” occurred in its later flight path.

The Agni-III was originally meant to be tested in 2003-04. However, the test was postponed owing to technological snags. After their rectification, said reports, the missile’s test flights were put off twice largely for “political reasons”, so as not to annoy the US.

Earlier this year, India decided to postpone the missile test out of fear that a test could hamper US Congressional ratification of the India-US nuclear cooperation deal. Publicly, the Indian defense minister cited “self-imposed restraint” to justify the postponement.

However, last month, General Peter Pace, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the US military, visited India and declared that “I do not see it [a test] as destabilizing” or upsetting the regional “military balance” since “other countries in this region” (read, Pakistan) have also tested missiles.

Following this “facilitation” or clearance, and after indications of favorable votes in US Congressional committees on the nuclear deal, India’s stand changed. A week later, the DRDO announced it was ready to launch Agni-III.

This is the ninth missile in the Agni series (named after the Sanskrit word for “fire”) to have been tested. The first was tested in May 1989. The last test (Agni-II) took place in August 2004.

Unlike major powers like the US, Russia or China, which test the same missile 10 to 20 times before announcing that it is fully developed, India considers only three or four test flights to be enough for both producing and inducting new missiles.

This is not the first time that the test of an Agni series missile has failed. In the past, some tests of the shorter range Agni-II (range 2,000 kilometers-plus) also proved unsuccessful.

But what makes the Agni-III’sfailure significant is that unlike its shorter-range predecessors, it was a wholly new design, developed with the specific purpose of delivering a nuclear warhead.

The Agni-I (range 700 to 800 kilometers) and Agni-II were both products of India’s space program and connected to its Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP), itself launched in 1983. Originally, their design used a satellite space-launching rocket (SLV-3) as the first stage, on top of which was mounted the very short-range (150 to 250 kilometers) liquid fuel-propelled Prithvi missile.

The Agni-III’sbrand new design, in which both stages use solid propellants, was to enable it to carry a payload weighing up to 1.5 tons and deliver it to targets as far away as Beijing and Shanghai. At present, India lacks an effective nuclear deterrent vis-a-vis China, based on a delivery vehicle carrying a nuclear warhead. Agni-III was meant to fill the void.

The causes of the failure of the test flight are not clear. Scientists at the DRDO, which designed and built the missile, have been quoted as saying that many new technologies were tried in the Agni-III, including rocket motors, “fault-tolerant” avionics and launch control and guidance systems. Some of these could have failed. Other reports attribute the mishap to problems with the propellant.

“The DRDO isn’t the world’s most reliable weapons R&D agency,” Admiral L Ramdas, a former chief of staff of the Indian Navy, told Inter Press Service. “The Indian armed services’ experience with DRDO-made armaments has not been a happy one. Their reliability is often extremely poor. We often used to joke that one had to pray they would somehow work in the battlefield.”

The agency has a budget of Rs30 billion (US$670 million), which is of the same order as the annual expenditure of the Department of Atomic Energy which is responsible for India’s civilian and military nuclear programs.

This figure is extremely high for a poor country like India, with a low rank of 127 among 175 countries of the world in the United Nations Human Development Index,” said Anil Chowdhary of the Coalition for Nuclear Disarmament and Peace. “Yet the DRDO has delivered very little.”

None of the three major projects assigned to the DRDO has been completed on time or without huge cost-overruns. These include the development of a Main Battle Tank (MBT), a nuclear power plant for a submarine, and an advanced Light Combat Aircraft (LCA), all involving expenditures of hundreds of millions of dollars.

The MBT project was launched in 1974. But the tank has failed to meet service requirement tests. It is reportedly too heavy and undependable to be used in combat operations. The Indian Army prefers imported Russian tanks over the indigenous MBTs and says it will use the MBTs for training, not operations.

The nuclear submarine project, launched 31 years ago, is not yet finished despite the almost $1 billion spent on it. The LCA project, launched in 1983, is still in the doldrums: the DRDO has failed to develop the right engine for it. Even with an imported engine, the plane is unlikely to enter service anytime soon.

The primary reason for these shocking instances of underperformance and inability is lack of public accountability and oversight of the DRDO,” says M V Ramana, an independent technical expert attached to the Center for Interdisciplinary Studies in Environment and Development, Bangalore.

“The DRDO, like all of India’s defense and nuclear service establishments, is not subject to normal processes of audit. It has used ’security’ as a smokescreen or shield and refused to be held to account,” he adds.

The DRDO says it will try to rectify the faults in Agni-III. Whether or not and whenever that happens, India’s missile development program, withfuture plans to develop an intercontinental ballistic missile with a range of 5,000 kilometers or more, has suffered a major setback. (Inter Press Service)

APPENDIX B

Agni Missile designers are incompetent: Pakistan scientist Daily India ^ | 7/9/06 Posted on Monday, July 10, 2006 7:20:03 AM by maxypane

Islamabad, July 10 (IANS) The failure of Agni-III reflected ‘incompetence’ of the Indian missile designers and planners, said an eminent Pakistani scientist.

They would need to go back to the drawing board and take two to three years, unless ‘they borrow something from abroad,’ said Samar Mubarikmund, chairman of Pakistan’s National Engineering and Science Commission (Nescom).

Claiming that Israel was involved in developing India’s missile programme, Mubarikmund said Pakistan, which had an indigenous programme of its own, retained superiority over all others in the South Asian region.

Mubarikmund told The News Sunday that the circumstances narrated by the Indians for the failure of the missile test were ‘not acceptable.’

The Indian missile met a disaster as it could not attain the altitude where the first stage is over or the second is even ignited.

He disputed the Indian claim, saying that with the range of 3,500 km, the missile had to go above about 800-900 km while the second stage had to be ignited at 28 to 30 km.

‘If the missile fell from the height of 12 km, it establishes that either it’s motor rocket, the basics of the missile proved failure or the guidance and control system was faulty. In both the probabilities, Indian technology has been exposed in clumsy manners.’

‘It is interesting to watch that Indian missile programme that was initiated by French and US assistance and later New Delhi also borrowed Russian technical support has been facing tragedies from the beginning,’ the newspaper quoted him as saying.

The newspaper also quoted from official sources to take pot shots at Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh.

‘In fact he (Manmohan Singh) attained high moral ground for his country just to provide cover to constant failures of his country’s scientists engaged in developing long-range missiles and they were hesitating from testing the missile,’ the sources said.

Pakistan is still maintaining its superiority in missile technology in whole SouthAsia as it has successfully tested number of missiles with various ranges including Shaheen-II that has the range of the 2,500 km withall remarkably accurate parameters.

These parameters proved in the presence of international neutral empires when the missile hit the target to extent of centimetres accuracy in the Indian Ocean, the sources said.

APPENDIX C

Indian missiles far from being operational despite repeated tests IRNA – Islamic Republic News Agency

New Delhi, July 24,IRNA — The Trishul “quick-reaction” surface-to- air missile was again tested on Sunday, but just like its sister Akash missile it is still far from being inducted into the armed forces.

The frequent time, cost, technical and operational slippages in the nine-km-range Trishul and 25-km-range Akash surface-to-air missile programs have meant that the country’s air defence cover continues to have gaping holes.

Pakistan, in sharp contrast, has always accorded high priority to its air defence management, with its multi-tier surveillance cover, air defence fighters, quick-reaction, short-range missiles and an integrated control and reporting system.

The Indian Armed Forces, however, continues to make do with its obsolete air defence systems, said an Asian Age report here today.

The IAF, for instance, has aging Pechora, Igla-1M and OSA-AK missile systems, and that, too, in woefully inadequate numbers.

While Trishul was to replace its OSA-AK weapons system, Akashwas meant as a substitute for Pechora.

But both the Trishul and Akash air defence missile systems, which are part of the original Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme launched as far back as 1983, have been dogged by development snags in their “command guidance and integrated Ramjet rocket propulsion” systems.

Trishul, for instance, has been tested over 80 times so far without coming anywhere near becoming operational. It was, in fact, virtually given up for dead in 2003 after around Rs 300 crore was spent on it, before being revived yet again.

Trishul’s repeated failure, in fact, forced the Navy to go in for nine Israeli Barak anti-missile defence systems for its frontlinewarships, along with 200 Barak missiles, at a cost of Rs 1,510 crore during the 1999 Kargil conflict. The Navy is now inducting even more Barak systems due to Trishul’s continued failure.

The Defence Research and Development Organization, for its part, contends the seven Trishul trials so far this year, including a flight test with enhanced range of 11.5km against a remotely piloted aircraft, have “met all mission objectives.”
Trishul can engage targets like aircraft and helicopter, flying between 300 meters and 500 meters, by using its radar command-to- line, of-sight guidance system, it says.

The report card for Akash, tested 16 times since January 2005, is even better since it has completed all its development trials.

“On January 28 this year, interception of two moving targets by two Akashmissiles with live warheads was successfully carried out,” said an official.

“Akash has multiple-target handling capacity with a digitally coded command guidance system. Its user trials are now in progress,” he said.

The missile’s `Rajendra’ radar, a multi-function phased array radar which carries out surveillance, target-tracking, missile acquisition and guidance, can simultaneously track several aircraft within a range of 40 to 60 kilometers. 2160/2321/1414 (http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/india/2006/india-060724-irna04.htm)

APPENDIX D

Pakistan missile project ahead of India’s’

NEW DELHI, Jan 9: India’s missile scientists have said that the country’s indigenous missile programme is flagging and needs foreign assistance to revive it.

The embarrassing admission came amid claims by Indian analysts that Pakistan’s missile programme had proved to be more robust and surefooted than India’s. The Mail Today newspaper on Wednesday quoted the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) as announcing that it would scrap its 25-year Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) by the end of this year.

Plagued by cost overruns and repeated failures, the announcement is a virtual admission of failure,” the newspaper said.“In fact, some former chiefs of the different services said as much on hearing the news.”

Speaking of the Trishul surface-to-air missile that has now been termed a technology demonstrator, former naval chief Sushil Kumar said:“It was a national embarrassment. DRDO made fake claims for 25 years. In the 1999 Kargil conflict, the navy was vulnerable to attacks from Pakistan’s Harpoon.

“Finally the project was scrapped when the navy went in for the Israeli Barak missiles. The Prithvi’s naval variant, Dhanush, is also flawed and ill-conceived, which is being inflicted on the navy.”On the Akash missile, which was the subject of the DRDO media conference here on Tuesday, former air chief S. P. Tyagi said:“Akash was to be ready at a certain time, but it wasn’t. I had to change everything to make up for the delay.” Bothmissiles were part of a programme to develop indigenous weapons, which began in July 1983, with plans for Agni, Prithvi, Trishul, Akash and Nag missiles.

The IGMDP, which was aimed at achieving self-sufficiency in missile development and production, comprises five core missile programmes — the strategic Agni ballistic missile, the tactical Prithvi ballistic missile, the Akash and Trishul surface-to-air missiles and the Nag anti-tank guided missile.

The Mail Today quoted S. Prahlada, chief of the Control Research and Development, DRDO, as saying that development and production of most of the futuristic weapon systems would henceforth be undertaken with foreign collaboration.

With regard to the nuclear-capable Agni series, comprising I and II, the newspaper quoted army sources as saying while they had been tested five times each “a handful of tests are not enough to prove a missile’s worth”.

There were different problems with other systems too.

“Pakistan has always been one step ahead of India in its missile programme,” the newspaper said, adding that Islamabad has “a much more robust missile force than India, one capable of launching nuclear weapons to any part in this country.”

Unlike Indian missiles, which were declared “inducted” after a few tests, the Pakistani projectiles have always been thoroughly tested. http://www.dawn.com/2008/01/10/top16.htm

APPENDIX E

Agni Failure Bad News For India


India’s doomed Agni missile.

by Martin Sieff
UPI Senior News Analyst

Washington DC (UPI) Jul 17, 2006


The failure of two major India missile launches in two days Sunday and
Monday proved intensely embarrassing for the nation’s prestige and
threw major doubt on its military-industrial high-tech capabilities.An analysis from the Inter-Press Service that was published in the Asia
Times Tuesday argued that the problems are deep-rooted in the Indian
defense establishment.
Source: United Press International

On Monday, a $50 million geosynchronous satellite launch vehicle, or
GSLV, with a communications satellite on board was ordered to
self-destruct as it veered off course soon after liftoff on Monday.
Authorities at the civilian Indian Space Research Organization said one
of its four strap-on rocket motors had failed.

The day before, the Agni III intercontinental ballistic missile, the
pride of India’s strategic missile forces, failed shortly after take
off. The Agni III was designed to have a range of 2,100 miles to 2,400
miles — a capability that would have allowed it to deliver a nuclear
weapon payload as far as the Chinese cities of Beijing and Shanghai.
But on its first, and much delayed test launch, it crashed instead into
the Bay of Bengal after flying less than 600 miles.

Of the two unsuccessful launches, “the failure of the Agni III was in
some ways more serious because it exposed the political limitations of
India’s attempts, despite its ambitions, to pursue a military
capability which is truly independent of the U.S.’s strategic
calculations,” analyst Praful Bidwai wrote in the Asia Times.

The Agni-III was originally meant to be tested in 2003-04. However, its
first test was repeatedly postponed owing to technological problems.
More recently, as we have noted previously in these columns, the
Congress Party-led government of Prime Minister Manmohan Singh deferred
a scheduled test launch this year so as not to risk hostile reactions
in the United States while the U.S. Congress was considering
ratification of India’s nuclear cooperation agreement with the United
States.

However, committees of both the U.S. Senate and the House of
Representatives have given overwhelming approval to the nuclear
agreement that was finalized in March and its passage through both main
chambers of the U.S. legislature now appears assured. Also, Gen. Peter
Pace, the chairman of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff, assured Indian
officials in New Delhi in June that testing the Agni III would not be
viewed as a concern by the Bush administration.

Previously, some tests of the shorter range Agni-II with a range of
around 1,200 miles also proved unsuccessful, Bidwai noted. “But what
makes the Agni-III’s failure significant is that unlike its
shorter-range predecessors, it was a wholly new design, developed with
the specific purpose of delivering a nuclear warhead,” he wrote.

“The causes of the failure of the test flight are not clear,” Pridwai
wrote. “Scientists at the DRDO (India’s super-secret and prestigious
Defense Research Development Organization) which designed and built the
missile, have been quoted as saying that many new technologies were
tried in the Agni-III, including rocket motors, “fault-tolerant”
avionics and launch control and guidance systems. Some of these could
have failed. Other reports attribute the mishap to problems with the
propellant.”

“The DRDO isn’t the world’s most reliable weapons R&D agency,”
Admiral L. Ramdas, a former chief of staff of the Indian Navy, told
Inter Press Service. “The Indian armed services’ experience with
DRDO-made armaments has not been a happy one. Their reliability is
often extremely poor. We often used to joke that one had to pray they
would somehow work in the battlefield.”

Despite an annual budget of $670 million, comparable to that of India’s
massive Department of Atomic Energy, “The DRDO has delivered very
little,”

Anil Chowdhary of the Coalition for Nuclear Disarmament and Peace told Bidwai.

“None of the three major projects assigned to the DRDO has been
completed on time or without huge cost-overruns,” Bidwai noted. The
organization’s project to build India’s first home-produced main battle
tank began more than 30 years ago in 1974. Yet the tank has still
failed to meet service requirement tests and is reportedly too heavy
and undependable to be used in combat operations, he wrote.

The equally venerable DRDO project to build India’s first
home-manufactured nuclear submarine is still not completed, despite
expenditures on it of nearly $1 billion, Bidwai wrote. And a Light
Combat Aircraft, or LCA project, launched in 1983, is also mired
because the DRDO has failed to develop the right engine for it, he
wrote.

Even if the DRDO can manage a successful test launch of the Agni III
ICBM in the next few months, Bidwai’s analysis suggests that the
structural problems of India’s military-industrial sector are
widespread and deep-rooted and unlikely to be satisfactorily resolved
soon. That condition is likely to give an added impetus to India’s
efforts to develop ever-closer high tech ties with the United States.

Source: United Press International

Learn about nuclear weapons doctrine and defense at SpaceWar.com

APPENDIX F (the spin on the stopping the program)

Blast-off from a missile era

– Isolated self-reliance ends

New Delhi, Jan. 8: India has wound up its guided missile programme 24 years after it was launched, jettisoning the political philosophy of isolated self-reliance in military technology.

The burial of the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) founded by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam in July 1983 was couched in claims by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) that it has delivered all five missile systems that the plan envisaged.

The announcement comes a day before the DRDOcelebrates its golden jubilee. Begun with an initial allocation of about Rs 389 crore in 1983, the cost and time overruns have seen more than Rs 2,000 crore being used up in the programme to develop five missile systems. (See chart)

C.K. Prahlada, the chairman of the IGMDP board and chief controller (research and development) of DRDO, declared today that the Akashsurface-to-air missile system tested last monthwas ready for induction by the army and the air force. With this, the IGMDP has been formally wound up.

The winding up of the IGMDP does not mean that all work on the five missile projects is scrapped immediately. It means the government will not make any further investment in the research and development of these missiles over and above what has already been sanctioned.

For example, the Agni III strategic missile that successfully test-fired in April last year can still be fine-tuned and more tests of it are likely on the road to induction in the armed forces.

The government and the DRDO believe that the winding up of the IGMDP means the emphasis is now shifting from research and development to series production.

Prahlada said missile manufacturing capacities have to be expanded. Capacity at a missile facility in Hyderabad will be expanded in the short term to 100 missiles from 40 a year.

The IGMDP’s time actually ran out in December 2007 and were it not for the DRDO’s advertisement of the Akash as the pinnacle of its success, the programme’s burial would have been quiet. Work on the smallest of the missiles under the project — the anti-tank Nag — will be over this summer.

“You must understand the background of the IGMDP,” Prahlada explained. “It was started at a time when there was no help forthcoming from anywhere. That situation is not there now.”

To illustrate, he said there were organisations from as many as 14 countries that were now willing to collaborate with the DRDO in developing missiles. Among these were the US, Israel, Germany, France and Russia.

When the IGMDP was launched in July 1983, India was dependent almost wholly on Russian military technology. But even Soviet supplies and support for the strategic missile programme was niggardly.

Understanding that the US had imposed a technology-denial regime, India offered to devise its own missiles and put Kalam in charge.

The IGMDP was given time till 1995. On Kalam’s insistence, the P.V. Narasimha Rao government gave it a further lease of life for another 10 years.

In 2006, when the defence establishment had all but taken a decision to mothball the Trishul missile programme, the DRDO insisted again — when Kalam was President — and the government granted it another two years.

In these two years, the DRDO — and not only its missile programmes — came in for criticism from the users (the armed forces) and even its former scientists. But last year, the DRDO carried out probably the largest number of missile tests in the rush to meet the December 2007 deadline.

Asked if the IGMDP was going to be replaced by another programme, Prahlada said there would be a general move towards greater collaborative ventures but this would be decided on a case-by-case basis.

He said two possible models were the Brahmos supersonic cruise missile that is a joint venture between India and Russia run on commercial lines, and the Astra, a beyond-visual-range air-to-air missile for which the DRDOis tying up with institutions in at least four countries.

But this model, however, will not be adopted for strategic (read long-range nuclear-capable) missiles like the Surya (which is on the drawing board) and electronic warfare systems.

Appendix G

By Rajat Pandit, TNN, Monday, 2 February 2009.

NEW Delhi, India-With active help from China and North Korea, Pakistan has surged well ahead of India in the missile arena. The only nuclear-capable

ballistic missile in India’s arsenal which can be said to be 100% operational as of now is the short-range Prithvi missile.

Though the 700-km Agni-I and 2,000-km-plus Agni-II ballistic missiles are being “inducted” into the armed forces, it will take “some time” for them to become “fully-operational in the numbers required”.

Defence sources said the armed forces were still in the process of undertaking the “training trials” of Agni-I and Agni-II to give them the requisite capabilities to fire them on their own.

Of the two, the progress report of Agni-I, tested for the first time in January 2002 to plug the operational gap between Prithvi (150-350 km) and Agni-II missiles, is much better. The Army has already conducted two “user training trials”, one in October 2007 and other in March 2008, of the Pakistan-specific Agni-I missile.

The fourth test of 3,500-km Agni-III, which will give India the strategic capability to hit targets deep inside China, is also on the anvil now. But Agni-III, tested successfully only twice in April 2007 and May 2008, will not be ready for induction before 2012.

Then, of course, design work on India’s most ambitious strategic missile with near ICBM (intercontinental ballistic missile) capabilities, the 5,000-km range Agni-V, which incorporates a third composite stage in the two-stage Agni-III, is also in progress. “We should be ready to test Agni-V by 2010-2011,” said an official.

So, in effect, the missile report card is rather dismal at present. “Unlike Pakistan, our programme is indigenous. But a strategic missile needs to be tested 10 to 15 times, over a variety of flight envelopes and targets, before it can be said to be fully-operational. A missile cannot be dubbed ready just after three to four tests,” said an expert.

Keeping this benchmark in mind, only Prithvi can be dubbed to be fully ready. Defence PSUs like Bharat Dynamics Ltd, Bharat Earth Movers Ltd and Mishra Dhatu Nigam Ltd, in fact, are stepping up production of the different Prithvi variants.

Army, for instance, has orders worth Rs 1,500 crore for 75 Prithvi-I and 62 Prithvi-II missiles, while IAF has gone in for 63 Prithvi-II missiles for over Rs 900 crore.

Navy, in turn, has ordered Dhanush missiles, the naval version of Prithvi, with a 350 km strike range, for its “dual-tasked” warships, INS Subhadra and INS Suvarna.

India wants to gatecrash into the very exclusive club of `Big-Five’ countries like Russia, US and China, which have both ICBMs (missiles with strike ranges over 5,500-km) and SLBMs (submarine-launched ballistic missiles), before 2015.

The SLBM quest is specifically crucial since it’s the most effective and secure leg of the “nuclear weapon triad”, with land-based missiles and aircraft capable of delivering nuclear bombs constituting the first two components.

The initial range of K-15 SLBM being developed by DRDO will, however, be limited to 750-km, far less than the over 5,000-km range SLBMs brandished by the `Big-5′ countries.

The plan is to go for higher strike ranges after the initial K-15 missiles are integrated into the indigenous nuclear-powered submarines being built under the secretive ATV (advanced technology vessel) programme.WWW.AHMEDQURAISHI.COM

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  1. August 28, 2009 at 10:13 am

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